July 2020
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Drugs from allergies

Drugs from allergiesThe rapid development of civilization and urbanization, synthesis of new chemical compounds and environmental degradation

lead to thoughts of scientists that the current time was the beginning of a progressive course of allergic diseases. In fact, the value of this

pathology for the modern man is difficult to overestimate…

Essentially, an Allergy is a heightened sensitivity of the living organism, in relation to a specific substance or substances

(allergens) that develops with repeated exposure to these substances. Physiological mechanism of Allergy is the formation in the body

antibodies, which leads to a decrease or increase its sensitivity.

Allergy is manifested by severe irritation of mucous membranes, skin rashes, fever up to 38 °C and above,fits of coughing

and General malaise, etc .

Manifestation of allergies reduces the productivity of the sick, affect his psychological state, diminish quality of life!

Allergies could be triggered by any component of the environment, and particularly worth thinking what could be the factors in the era

man-made achievements and genetically modified foods .

According to scientists, now became allergic in the first positions in the structure of General morbidity after cancer pathology, infectious and

cardiovascular disease. It all has to do with the fact that people are greatly exposed to a large number of allergens. To be precise

the human body faces every day with chemicals, both at work and at home. And the body interprets all of these

substances as foreign. And it would seem for one person there is no apparent action, but for another person, the allergic substance gives


They reduce the work ability of the sick, affect his psychological state, diminish quality of life.

While in the environment, an allergic reaction may occur with respect to any compounds. In the first place – it is an Allergy,

particular pollen. When a person inhales, in the contact allergic reaction occurs. It is manifested by rhinitis, lacrimation,

pharyngitis, conjunctivitis.

Types of allergic reactions ( classification Galla and Coombs )

The reaction of immediate type IgE hyperproduction. Manifestation: anaphylactic shock, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, rhinitis, etc.

Cytotoxic type reactions, which is characterized by formation of antibodies to the membranes of cells circulating in the blood ( neutrophils,

the platelets ).

Immune complex reactions. In response to an allergen allocated antibodies IgM and IgG immune complex is formed by reaction of the set,

which destructively affects the connective tissue elements. Subsequently developed antibodies to their own tissues of the body,

starts autoimmune reaction.

Delayed type reaction, characterized by activation of T-lymphocytes that destroy or structures containing it. This type of reaction

underlies diseases such as atopic dermatitis, eczema, and disease and Lyell’s syndrome.

Phase allergic reactions

Phase immunological reactions – the development of antibodies and their interactions with allergen.

Phase pathochemical reactions is the release of histamine, serotonin and secondary allergic mediators,such as leukotrienes, and prostaglandin

some types of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

The pathophysiological phase – development of clinical allergic disease.

The basis of the third phase is the effect of histamine on the tissue, resulting in skin rashes appear different nature,

increased sweating, occurs rhinitis, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, bronchospasm, bronchial asthma. But at the expense of vasodilators

effect of histamine may develop anaphylactic shock. Thus, if you block the cell from the effects of histamine, inflammatory

the reaction in the affected tissues does not occur. Based on this principle, the effects of antihistamines that block H1

histamine receptors.

Allergy symptoms

Allergy symptoms can be of two types: local and General. Local Allergy symptoms include:

allergic conjunctivitis (red eyes, tears);

allergic rhinitis (redness of the nose, swelling);

bronchospasm (difficulty breathing, a small whistling);

allergic dermatitis (rash, itching, redness on the body);

allergic otitis media (hearing loss, swelling).

Common Allergy symptoms include itching, redness of skin, shortness of breath, swelling, etc. If the symptoms are very strong, quite possible

anaphylactic shock.

Allergy treatment

We must remember that self-medication may not always be correct. When an Allergy happens the first step is to consult a doctor.

After all, the surest solution is first to be tested, after which, and assigned to the antihistamines.

And so there is need to suspend contact with the allergen as much as possible. One of the most severe complications of Allergy is when

patient going into anaphylactic shock or angioedema. At the same time, you should call an ambulance and to do everything possible to get to the lungs

did as much air.

Today Allergy medications are many.

The difference between antihistamines:

I generation ( Diphenhydramine, Chloropyramine, Clemastine, Diphenhydramine, Diazolin ) is reduced to not selective blocking of H1-receptors. This

due to their sedative effect and short term action of 3-4 hours. The reason for such reactions not in the selectivity of drugs (I

generation – they block the receptors not only histamine, but other types of receptors. Side effects: drowsiness, attention span.

Contraindications: those who have the work requires attention ( driving, etc.), prostate adenoma, glaucoma,

bronchial asthma (makes the mucus more viscous, making it difficult expectoration, reduce the ability to breeding).

II generation of drugs appeared in the 70-ies of XX in ( Cetirizine and loratadine ) At the present time the drugs Cetirizine: Amurtel,

Aleratec, Analergin, Zodac, Cethrin, Cetirizin hexane ; Loratadine: Agistam, Alaric, claritin, Lorano, Larison, Lorfast, Erolin . They

characterized by prolonged action ( up to 24 hours ) and considerably less sedative effect. These drugs do not have

anticholinergic effect. For this reason, do not have the contraindications, which are described in drugs of the first generation.

III generation drugs have a sedative action, an active metabolite of the second-generation drugs and mostly not

show cardiotoxic effect. These include: Fexofenadine, hydrochlori d ( Altiva, Elfast, DeNOx, Telfast, Thefast );

Desloratadine ( Luratech, Alergo-norms, Eden, Rides, Aerius, Fibres ). Range protivoallergicheskogo influence greatly expanded. Drugs

the third generation are the 3 mechanism of action: blockade of H1 histamine receptors; anti – suppression of production of leukotrienes;

anti-inflammatory effect – a reduction in the production of granulocyte macrophage factor